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Summer and autumn are the seasons when delicious fruit is on the market. However, many of my friends are confused: You always say that eating fruit is good for health and can reduce the risk of high blood pressure and stroke. But if the fruit is so sweet, can people who need blood sugar control eat fruit?

The answer is: you can eat fruit. Most fruits have a lower blood sugar response than rice steamed buns. At the same time, epidemiological studies have not found that eating the right amount of whole fruit increases the risk of diabetes. Therefore, as long as the amount of food is reasonable (such as 200-350 grams per day recommended in the Chinese Dietary Guidelines), eating fruit does not hinder the control of postprandial blood sugar.

A mother asked me: I just checked out to have gestational diabetes. The doctor told me that I can only eat low-GI (glycemic index) fruit. But which fruits are low GI?

In fact, there are many fruits with low GI. For example, the GI value of kiwifruit is 52, the strawberry is 40, the apple is 36, the peach is 28, the grapefruit is 25, the plum is 24, and the cherry is only 22. In contrast, the GI values ​​for rice and steamed bread are 83 and 88, respectively.

Even those fruits that people think are very sweet, in fact, the GI value is not comparable to rice and steamed bread. For example, the GI values ​​for grapes, bananas, and mango are only 43, 52, and 55, respectively.

The expectant mother said with amazement: I don’t dare to eat grapes and bananas. I think the sugar is too much, too sweet, and the original GI value is so low! Then why do doctors still not let me eat these kinds of fruits!

I explained to her: The so-called GI value is compared by the same 50 grams of digestible carbohydrates. In fruits, the so-called digestible carbohydrates are basically the sugar content. In other words, this indicator is not based on the ratio. Grapes are high-sugar fruits, and a pound of sugar in the seedless white grapes is much higher than the sugar in a pound of peeled kiwifruit! Therefore, comparing 50 grams of sugar to 50 grams of sugar, it seems that the grape is slower in blood sugar; but if you compare 50 grams of grape meat with 50 grams of kiwi meat, it must be the grape’s postprandial blood sugar peak is relatively large!

Therefore, you can’t just consider the GI value, but also consider how much sugar you eat. Multiplying the GI value by the sugar content is the correct way to evaluate the blood sugar response of the fruit. This indicator is called “glycemic load” (GL). In other words, it is wise to choose fruits with less sugar at the same GI value; it is wise to choose fruits with lower GI values ​​at the same sugar content.

Expectant mother said: Ah, I understand! Bananas have high sugar content. In order to control postprandial blood sugar, I can only eat a small amount at a time. While kiwi and strawberry sugar are low, I can eat a little more. Right?

I said: Too right, that’s what it means. In fact, as long as you are not allergic, there is no gastrointestinal discomfort, all kinds of fruit can eat. Only those fruits with high GI or high sugar content should be extra careful and control the quantity. For example, if a grape eats a few grains at a time, and a few slices of bananas, there is actually no unpleasantness after eating, and it is also avoiding getting fat.

The lady asked again: Is there any fruit with a higher GI value?

Of course there are. For example, pineapple 66, watermelon 72, even if the fruit has the highest GI value. Therefore, do not eat a large bowl of pineapple fruit, do not eat half a watermelon. It is better to stop your mouth every time you eat it. The problem is that people rarely stop eating a piece of watermelon, so in many families, the contribution of eating watermelon in summer to blood sugar rise is often bigger than expected…

Another lady asked a rather complicated question: You said that peaches, cherries, apples, and the like are low-GI fruits. If it is peach, sweet cherry and very sweet apple? Can people who need to control blood sugar still feel at ease? I saw information on the Internet that low-GI fruits are sweeter than high-GI fruits (such as unsweetened watermelons). Because the low GI fruit itself has less fructose content than the high GI fruit, it will not increase the postprandial blood sugar, and it is not sweet and sweet. What do you think?

This question is very level. I also think that the GI value is not absolute. The same kind of fruit, different varieties, different maturity, different sugar content, different ingredients, including different eating methods, there will be a big difference in postprandial blood glucose response.

I seriously thought about it and told her that although there have been no relevant human experiments and no data, theoretical analysis shows that in addition to the total sugar content, it can be considered from three aspects.

The first aspect is the difference in the ratio of fructose to sucrose and glucose. All fruits contain these three sugars, but in different proportions. Among them, glucose has the fastest blood sugar level, and fructose has the slowest blood sugar level. However, in this aspect alone, the blood sugar response cannot be determined. For example, watermelon has a large proportion of fructose, but its GI value is very high, why?

The second aspect is the difference between chewability and pectin content (more pectin is slowly digested). When the pectin content is rich, the cell wall is tough and chewable. The need for patience to chew means that the sugar is confined to the plant cells and will not be released quickly; and the solid food has a slower gastric emptying rate than the liquid food, so it is not easy to rapidly raise blood sugar. For example, apples, pears, and hard pecans need to be chewed to swallow, and the GI value is low. When the watermelon is bitten, the water is chewable, and the sugar is quickly absorbed. This may be an important reason for its high GI value. Inferred from this principle, a peach with a bite of juice should have a higher GI value than a hard peach.

The third aspect is the difference in acidity and polyphenol content. Polyphenols such as tannins, proanthocyanidins and other astringent substances can inhibit the activity of a variety of digestive enzymes, while high acidity is beneficial to delay postprandial blood glucose response. The GI value measurement also showed that some fruits with high tannins and anthocyanins, such as cherries and strawberries, as well as fruits with a slightly sour taste, such as oranges and grapefruits, had lower blood sugar levels. If a fruit is neither sour nor sinful, only sweet, then in theory, at the same sugar content, its postprandial blood glucose response will be higher than the taste of sour.

Therefore, the final suggestion is: friends who need to control blood sugar do not forget two main points: one is to limit the total amount, the other is a small number of times, the third is to choose the fruits that need to be chewed, the slightly acidity and the slightly astringent fruit . It is most important to master the basic principles, and you don’t have to be too rigid about the glycemic index table because it is impossible to exhaust all the varieties and cultivation conditions of the fruit.

Finally, I would also like to suggest that for those who need to control blood sugar, it is a good idea to eat a small amount of sugar between the two meals, such as a licking apple, half a peach, etc. The rapid rise in blood sugar can prevent hypoglycemia before the next meal.

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