A healthy diet that is characterized by diversity, high nutrient density, and can be personalized. But is there no limit to it?
Of course, there are limits, just different from the angle of thinking that many people imagine. Healthy eating should first consider how to eat the food you eat, find foods with high nutritional value, and cook them with a pleasant mix, instead of first staring at what you can’t eat, making yourself very depressed and painful. . When choosing food varieties, especially when selecting processed foods, it is important to consider how to limit the added sugar (excluding the sugars naturally contained in fruits and vegetables) and salt (including other sodium-containing food additives). Also control the total amount of saturated fat and trans fat. Finally, limit the amount of alcohol.
Why are these food ingredients so unappealing? This is because the addition of sugar, saturated fat and trans fat can significantly reduce the nutrient density of food and may increase the risk of obesity, diabetes, high blood pressure and other diseases. It can be said that if these ingredients are not restricted, it is really difficult for people to achieve a healthy diet.
In the US New Dietary Guidelines, there are a number of restrictions on the following ingredients:
1.The added sugar in the food should not exceed 10% of the total calories in a day.
This value is not at all demanding. According to the daily intake of 2000 kilocalories per person (the recommended calorie value for women with light physical activity in China is 1800, the male is 2250 kcal, the average is about 2000 kcal), the 10% is 200 kcal, equivalent to 50 g. White sugar. The World Health Organization’s recommendation for adding sugar in 2015 is to limit it to less than 50 grams per day, preferably within 25 grams per day. It can be seen that the US Dietary Guidelines suggest that the upper limit is taken.
So which foods are the source of added sugar? I don’t know if I don’t know.
Chinese and Western dim sum with sugar: such as sweet bread, biscuits, cakes, egg tarts, crisps, pies, peach cakes, etc.;
Sugared porridge and paste: such as cereal paste, sweet and savory breakfast, nutritious cereal, sesame paste, peanut paste, etc.;
Sugary sweets: such as steamed yam condensed milk, steamed potato syrup, silked sweet potato, honey juice pumpkin, sweet-scented osmanthus glutinous rice bran, etc.;
Sugared fish dishes: such as lychee meat, sweet and sour vinegar, sweet and sour pork tenderloin, pineapple shrimp balls, etc.
Sugared soup: such as egg mashed corn glutinous rice, fruit glutinous rice wine, wine-baked dumplings, red bean paste, mung bean paste, white fungus, various sugar water, etc.;
Sugared snacks and snacks: such as dumplings, moon cakes, sweet glutinous rice, Babao rice, honey three knives, smashing, sugar ears, chestnut ram, red cardamom, mung bean cake, double skin milk, ginger milk, almond tofu, etc., countless kinds;
Sugared dairy products, such as most yoghurt, flavored milk (such as multi-grain milk, chocolate milk, fruity milk), milk tablets, Chinese sweet cheese, etc;
Sugared fruit products: such as canned fruit, fruit tarts, jams, jellies, preserves, etc. (please note that excluding sugar-free dried fruit);
Home-made drinks with sugar or honey, such as brown sugar water, honey water, sugared soy milk, boiled pear water with rock sugar, green bean soup with white sugar, flower and fruit tea with sugar candy, and so on.
Sweet commercial drinks, sweet ice cream ice cream smoothie milkshake sour plum soup, as well as a variety of sweets, sweet chocolate, etc., naturally needless to say, you know.
If you look at it, you can understand that sweets can’t be eaten, but if you eat two or three kinds of sugar, it is super easy to add more than 50 grams of sugar a day. So, to put it simply, in addition to fruit and dried fruit, sugared things are controlled to be safer every day.
2.Saturated fat is controlled within 10% of the total daily calories.
Saturated fats need to be controlled because their excessive intake may increase the risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. So, what is the equivalent of 10% calories per day? Because the caloric coefficient of fat is much higher than sugar, 200 kcal of saturated fat is only equivalent to 22 grams. This number is not too much, because many people love food is a good source of saturated fat:
- pig, beef and mutton (red meat), especially fat cattle, fat sheep, pork belly, plum meat. The more beef with “marble” and “snow”, the higher the saturated fat. From the fat of white flowers, you can produce a lot of animal oil. The fat of beef and mutton is higher than that of pig. The oil is higher. The general rule of red meat is that the more expensive the meat, the more juicy the taste, the more fragrant the taste and the higher the fat content.
- A variety of dishes cooked with lard or fat, or snacks made, such as dumplings, minced meat, bacon moon cakes, and eight-treasure rice with lard.
- A variety of meat products made with fat, such as sausages, enema, luncheon meat, meatballs, and a variety of foods with meat filling.
- a variety of baked goods with butter, vegetable cream or shortening, shortening bread, tarts, biscuits, cookies, pies, crisps and the like.
- Various pre-packaged fried foods. Most of the professionally produced fried foods use palm oil as the frying oil, and the proportion of saturated fat is larger. It also includes fried instant noodles, casseroles, and potato chips.
- cheese, cake cream, ice cream, mousse dessert, cheese cake, European cake, etc. The more high-grade ice cream, the more cream it contains, and of course the more saturated fat. Whether it’s vegetable cream or real cream in ice cream and cake, there is no change in saturated fat.
- High fat milk and condensed milk. Milk contains a small amount of saturated fat (about 2 grams per 100 grams). Drinking a cup is far from the limit, but if you drink three or four cups a day, you can’t underestimate the total amount.
- Creamer and non-dairy creamer. Such ingredients are usually added to various instant powders (such as breakfast cereal flour, coconut powder, etc.), sweet milk tea, hot chocolate drinks, coffee mate, and the like. Although the trans fatty acid content in the non-dairy creamer is very low, the high saturated fat content will not change.
- As for lard, butter, butter, etc., it goes without saying that everyone knows that it is the base of saturated fat.
Therefore, even if you only eat one or two pigs, beef and mutton every day, if you eat some biscuit cookies in addition to three meals, add some ice cream and dessert, it is easy to saturate the excess fat.
In addition, if you eat less processed foods with high saturated fat, eat less fried foods, and eat less margarine, the amount of artificial trans fatty acids can also be effectively controlled.
3.The daily sodium intake is controlled within 2 300 mg (converted to about 6 g of salt).
People who eat salt and are harmful to health know the earth, but people may not know that the source of sodium is not just salt. In addition to salt, it also includes the following sources:
- A variety of salty seasonings, including soy sauce, bean paste, yellow sauce, sweet sauce, cardamom, all kinds of bean curd, bean paste, chives sauce, chili sauce, mushroom sauce, rice sauce and so on.
- A variety of flavorings such as MSG, chicken essence, mushroom essence, various soups, soups, shrimp paste, fish sauce, seafood sauce, oyster sauce, hydrolyzed protein savory, various convenient soups, etc.
- A variety of snacks and small foods. It includes candied fruit such as plum, Yanjin raisin, traditional snacks such as blame beans and orchid beans, fried snacks such as potato chips, bean products such as dried bean curd, and pickled phoenix Meat snacks such as clawed beef jerky, as well as nut oil seed snacks such as spiced peanut butter, melon seeds, cashew nuts, etc., contain quite high levels of salt.
- foods containing sodium bicarbonate and sodium carbonate, such as baking soda (sodium bicarbonate), soda ash (sodium carbonate), various baking powders added with sodium bicarbonate, spontaneous powder, swelling agents, and sodium bicarbonate Kinds of noodles such as fritters, twists, nests, jujube cakes, tortillas, hair cakes, etc., add soda noodles, noodles, instant noodles, soda ash, wonton and so on. A variety of biscuits, soda cakes and other fluffy texture snacks, can not be done without sodium bicarbonate.
- Other sodium-containing additives, such as beverages, starch products, noodles, noodles, dumplings, etc., various sodium phosphate salts, trisodium citrate and other organic sodium salts, preservatives, benzene in antifungal agents Sodium salt such as sodium formate, sodium dehydroacetate or sodium propionate. In fact, most food additives are added in the form of sodium salts.
Therefore, not only do you want to put salt on the dishes, but also pay attention to all kinds of processed noodles, including those with very good noodles, noodles, commercial dumplings, and very soft glutinous rice cakes, as well as various kinds. Dessert drinks and snacks. When it comes to the restaurant, those dishes that are particularly delicious are usually quite amazing in sodium content.
4.If you drink alcohol, you must limit it.
Women are restricted to one alcohol unit per day, men are limited to two alcohol units per day, and minors under the legal age cannot drink alcohol.
The so-called alcohol unit is equivalent to 12 grams of pure alcohol. According to 100 ml of beer containing alcohol 4g, rice wine and wine 12g, white wine 40g, respectively, equivalent to 300ml beer (1⁄2 cup for ordinary disposable paper cups), 100ml yellow wine and red wine (one-time cups and a half cup), and 30ml of white wine . It can be said that as long as you clink a cup on the table, it is very easy to overdose.
However, the addition of a spoonful of cooking wine and a bit of glutinous rice in the soup is not limited, because after cooking and heating, the alcohol that has not been much is already mostly evaporated, and the amount is negligible.
In short, although there are many varieties of fresh natural foods to eat, the healthy eating mode requires less sugar, salt-reducing cooking, and umami and salty seasonings are limited. For example, if you eat a sweet soup, you will not be able to make sweet and sour dishes. For example, if you add chicken essence, you should add less or no salt. For example, if you add garlic sauce, you will not put salt, and so on.
Of course, in the end, people should be encouraged not only to eat reasonably, but also to ensure sufficient physical activity in order to maintain a healthy weight state, to maintain body fat not exceeding the standard, especially to control the proportion of visceral fat. This is very important for the prevention of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, and is an important measure to ensure health and improve the quality of life.